There are many concepts which are difficult to grasp, one of which is time. Without calendars or clocks, it will be difficult for us to recon time and will definitely cause confusion. At least with time telling devices we associate time with days, weeks, months, years, and so forth but these do not define the concept of time. Naturally civilizations have been obsessed with time and time travel has been the ultimate dream for some. Although some theorize or explain time as something circular, our modern world treats it as something linear wherein it proceeds from something and travels from there and the past is gone as we move to the future. Those who think otherwise say that there is no such thing as past present and the future and time is almost like a sphere wherein the past, present and the future can even be simultaneous. Our laws adhere to the former and for a good reason. There has to be a measure or delineation of time with the use of our calendar and rights can actually be given away or waived in case a party fails to act within the required time.
Article 13 of The Civil Code states: “When the laws speak of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty-five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-four hours; and nights from sunset to sunrise. If months are designated by their name, they shall be computed by the number of days which they respectively have. In computing a period, the first day shall be excluded, and the last day included.” In many of our laws and other legal issuances time is usually an essential element especially with respect to the date of effectivity. The effectivity clause usually states: “this law shall take effect after Fifteen (15) days of its publication in a newspaper of general circulation”. It is very important to know when the law takes effect and as the above article states, the day of publication shall be excluded and the law will then take effect the day following the last day. In contracts such as indebtedness, the computation of penalties or interests depend upon the period agreed upon. If the contract says that penalties and interests shall be imposed if the money is not returned after one month from the execution of the contract, it means that interest and penalties will be imposed if the money is not returned after thirty days. If, however, it says “after the month of December 2015” then interest and penalties will accrue after the 31st day of December and not necessarily after 30 days.
Being on Time
Under our laws, rules and jurisprudence, time is very essential. If the court grants a party a period of time within which to submit a pleading, submission of the ordered pleading after the stated period may no longer be considered by the court since it was filed out of time. In counting days non-working holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays will be included but if the last day falls on such days the next working day which follows will be considered as the last day. Obviously, no one will be in court to receive the pleading to be filled during non-working holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays. Reconsiderations, appeals, and other remedies have often been denied because they were not filed on time. A litigant may even be barred from filing a case even if a clear right exists, because the time within which it should have been instituted has expired. This technicality can make a person victorious or a criminal free from any liability even without filing a single case.