Time is a concept which is very difficult to explain or understand. Scientists, alchemists, philosophers, and ordinary people have dreamt of bending time or even traveling across time with the purpose of probably changing the errors committed in the past. There have been some reported cases of probable time travel but they have been usually debunked and experts say they are merely coincidences. Others would like to slow the passing of time so they may be given enough chance to perform activities which are very important to them. The passing of time has legal implications and these are governed by specific laws.
Article 13 of The Civil Code states: “When the laws speak of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty-five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-four hours; and nights from sunset to sunrise. If months are designated by their name, they shall be computed by the number of days which they respectively have.In computing a period, the first day shall be excluded, and the last day included.” In many of our laws and other legal issuances time is usually an essential element especially with respect to the date of effectivity. The effectivity clause usually states: “this law shall take effect after Fifteen (15) days of its publication in a newspaper of general circulation”. It is very important to know when the law takes effect and as the above article states, the day of publication shall be excluded and the law will then take effect the day following the last day. In contracts such as indebtedness, the computation of penalties or interests depend upon the period agreed upon. If the contract says that penalties and interests shall be imposed if the money is not returned after one month from the execution of the contract, it means that interest and penalties will be imposed if the money is not returned after thirty days. If, however, it says “after the month of December 2023” then interest and penalties will accrue after the 31st day of December and not necessarily after 30 days.
Being on Time
Under our laws, rules and jurisprudence, time is very essential. If the court grants a party a period of time within which to submit a pleading, submission of the ordered pleading after the stated period may no longer be considered by the court since it was filed out of time. In counting days non-working holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays will be included but if the last day falls on such days the next working day which follows will be considered as the last day. Obviously no one will be in court to receive the pleading to be filled during non-working holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays. Reconsiderations, appeals, and other remedies have often been denied because they were not filed on time. A litigant may even be barred from filing a case even if a clear right exists, because the time within which it should have been instituted has expired. This technicality can make a person victorious or a criminal free from any liability even without filing a single case.